Caboose Operations On Your Model Railroad

If you are modeling any time period prior to the 1980's on your train layout then you are likely placing a caboose on the end of your trains. Do you know the reason for a caboose being placed on the end of a train? The caboose served a definite purpose, so if you want to operate your model railroad like the prototypes, then you need to learn the ins and outs of caboose operations.

The purpose of the caboose was to serve as a shelter for a portion of the train crew. The conductor and the brakeman used the caboose as an observation platform to watch over the train while it was in motion and as an office to keep the essential paperwork regarding the train. Inside the caboose there as a pressure gauge to monitor the train's brakes and a brake valve which could be used to stop the train in an emergency. The caboose even served as living quarters for the train crew when they were away from their home terminal. The inside was furnished with a table, benches, beds, a sink, a stove and an ice box. The other purpose of the caboose was for train protection toward the rear of the train.

For successful caboose operations, you need to have a dedicated "Caboose Track" in your main freight yard. This track may be close to the engine servicing terminal or next to the yard classification tracks. This dedicated track is specifically used for the storage and servicing of your model railroad's caboose fleet. Ideally, the caboose track would be double ended as opposed to a stub-end track. This way the yard engine can access both ends of the caboose track.

Many model railroaders enjoy switching freight cars on their layouts. Adding caboose operations to your layout allows you to switch cabooses between the Caboose Track and the trains that stop in the yard. The prototype railroads assigned conductors to a specific caboose. This meant that when a conductor was called for duty, their caboose was then assigned to be attached to the train they were in charge of.

You can model a freight yard as a division point terminal where train crews go on and off duty. As a train pulls into the yard, the yard engine will have to pull the caboose off the end and take it over to the Caboose Track. The yard engine will then have to get the caboose belonging to the next assigned conductor of the train and place it on the end of the train before it departs the yard for its next destination. To do this you will need to have enough cabooses on your layout to accommodate every train you plan to run on your layout. You can then specifically assign some cabooses to trains going east and some cabooses to trains going west.

You can even run one train into your yard with two or three cabooses on the end. The only caboose with an actual …

What Equipment Do You Need to Launch a Model Rocket?

When you see the advertisements for model rockets, it's easy to overlook the fact that you need to buy launch equipment as well. In fact, terms like "ready to fly rockets" and "almost ready to fly rockets" are actually quite misleading, because you can't fly them unless you also purchase a launch system and some consumables.

That, of course, can lead to a lot of disappointment on a Birthday or at Christmas and it's a common mistake that many people make. The extra equipment and the consumables needed to launch a model rocket are not excessively expensive, but it is frustrating if you did not know that you needed them.

So, if you are thinking of buying someone a model rocket kit for a gift, here are the additional pieces of equipment and consumables that they will need to be able to fly their rocket and that are not usually included as a part of a standard kit .

Launch Pad

The launch pad is a part of what is known as the launch system and it is a relatively simple piece of equipment that provides a stable base from which to launch a model rocket. A launch pad will cost you in the region of $ 15- $ 20 and it is reusable.

Launch Controller

The launch controller is the other element of what is known as the launch system and it is a small, hand-held electronic device that heats up the rocket igniter which, in turn, ignites the rocket engine. Launch controllers cost in the region of $ 20.

Rocket Engines

You will usually have to purchase the engines, or motors, for you model rocket separately too. Rocket engines come in a large variety of different sizes, so it is important that you check what type of engine is recommended for the rocket that you have bought. Rocket engines vary in price, but most start at around $ 10 for a pack of three.

Rocket Igniters

Rocket igniters, which are sometimes called rocket starters, are what are used to ignite the rocket engine. These are consumables, so they are not usually included with a model rocket kit. A packet of 6 Estes rocket starters will cost approximately $ 5.

Recovery Wadding

Recovery wadding is another consumable that you will need to launch a model rocket. Recovery wadding is made of a flame retardant material and it is used to protect the recovery system, which is usually a parachute, from the heat of the ejection charge. Recovery wadding is an essential consumable, but it only costs about $ 5.

Modeling supplies and tools

Depending on the type of model rocket that you buy, you may need some sundry modeling supplies, such as sandpaper, wood glue and plastic cement, as well as some basic modeling tools.

Model rocket kits are classified by skill levels; ready to fly, almost ready to fly, easy to assemble, and skill levels 1 through 5.

Ready to fly models need virtually no assembly and no …

Model Building As A Hobby

Building models is an interesting hobby for anyone. Any object may be replicated and downsized into miniatures. These models may be made or assembled with original designs and materials or factory manufactured kits.

Men and boys enjoy building vehicles, robots, and architectural buildings. Women and girls enjoy building with clay, paper products, and assembling a variety of commercial kits.

Childhood memories inspire our favorite pastimes to become our future hobbies or interests. These memories give us pleasure or reward us with relaxation, therapy, or an income opportunity.

Building models offer:

  1. An outlet for our arts and crafts talents and skills
  2. Challenges our creativity and imagination
  3. Freedom to explore and research
  4. Education
  5. Relaxation
  6. Recreation
  7. Therapy
  8. Building miniatures of our dreams and hopes
  9. Reward our abilities
  10. Pride in our accomplishments

Models are made with wood, plastics, metal, clay, paper products, foam, and other articles which become a part of or support a project.

Examples:

  1. Balsa wood for building airplanes
  2. Melted plastic solutions poured into rubber molds
  3. Metals can be cut and welded or melted into molds
  4. Clay and paper mache are used for molding figurines, animals, plants and flowers, and décor items
  5. Paper products and foam may be cut and glued to create buildings and other objects

The object which you are duplicating may be made with one or several types of materials from assorted resources.

Example:

A decision has been made to build a doll house. The house can be constructed with wood, cardboard, or pasteboard. The interior of the house may require clay, plastics, metal, and other materials to create furniture, people, carpet, flooring, and other décor.

People who have an interest in building models are both artisans and craftsmen with creative and imaginative abilities. They also possess various trade skills with excellent eye and hand coordination.

Types of Models:

  1. Animals
  2. Accessories which support the main project
  3. Commercial buildings and industrial building communities – residential and business
  4. Entertainment characters from books, comics, movies, and television
  5. Flora and landscaping
  6. Houses
  7. Machinery and mechanical devices
  8. Natural wonders – volcanoes, mountains, canyons
  9. People
  10. Robots and other toys
  11. Vehicles – cars, trucks, boats, ships, rockets, space ships, military vehicles

As you can see from the above list, there is an endless list of model building projects. You have the choice of designing and creating an original duplicate from materials at hand, experimenting with plastics and metals, or assembling ready-made articles.

Model Construction:

The media which is being used will determine the order of construction, materials, and tools. These three-dimensional buildings, characters, or animals all require starting with their foundation, proceeding with their accessories, and finalizing the details

Essential skills:

  1. Knowledge and familiarity with the craft
  2. Research
  3. Creativity and imagination
  4. Patience
  5. Time
  6. Detail oriented
  7. Photos and drawings of projects
  8. Engineering abilities
  9. Knowing how to work required tools
  10. Finishing applications

If you have never participated in this hobby, start with a simple project. This is a fun and exciting hobby experience.

Source Article

How to Correct Your Plastic Model Car Painting Mistakes

"Oh no, now I've done it." You have just applied to much paint and created huge sagging paint globs to your once perfect model. That perfect contest winning finish you were hoping for is now a disaster.

All is not lost however. You can fix just about any paint mistake that you have made on your contest model with just a bit of work. With a careful paint sanding technique, you can create a perfect finish.

Using four techniques; paint standing, re-spray, paint polish and wax, you can fix just about any mistake you make. I will show you how to use these techniques to fix your model and bring it back to contest level.

Paint standing is the first technique we will use to correct and over spray or orange peel situation you have created on your model. Orange peel is just extra paint that is applied to thickly and ends up making the surface of your model looked like the outside of an orange. The easiest technique I've found to correct this kind of situation is just to use sandpaper to grind off the extra paint. The hardest part of doing this is not to stand into the details sticking out of the surface of your model.

There are many different grades or grits of sandpaper. I basically classify sandpaper into two types, rough and fine. Rough sandpaper comes in grit numbers from 100 to 1000. The lower the number the more course it is. For heavy paint removal I typically use number 320 grit. Fine sandpaper runs from 2000 through 12000 grit. This fine grit is one secret to getting to a perfect finish.

Sandpaper comes with different kinds of backing. I prefer cloth backing over the cheaper paper backing because generally I use only a wet sanding technique. Wet sanding is where you use water to help lubricate the surface of the model and generally works better for my model paints.

Your first task is to let your paint mistake dry completely. Then start the uneven paint removal with a rough grit sanding being very careful not to sand into any plastic detail of your model. I will cut the sandpaper into very small pieces and hold them or glue them to wooden "tools" to get into small places. I will also use paint thinner to soften paint buildup around detailed areas keeping in mind that you do not want to ruin the plastic.

Once this is done, re-spray paint the damaged area.

Continue this process of sanding and re-spraying until you are satisfied with the finish. At this stage you are now ready to fine sand the paint.

Fine sanding is really the true secret to a perfect paint finish. I work the paint finish by sanding the paint using these grits in order.

2400

3200

4000

6000

8000

12000

The sandpaper I like to use is sandwiched between foam so that it conforms to the surface of the model more easily. Each step uses …

Technology Acceptance Model

Advances in computing and information technology are changing the way people meet and communicate. People can meet, talk, and work together outside traditional meeting and office spaces. For instance, with the introduction of software designed to help people schedule meetings and facilitate decision or learning processes, is weakening geographical constraints and changing interpersonal communication dynamics. Information technology is also dramatically affecting the way people teach and learn.

As new information technologies infiltrate workplaces, home, and classrooms, research on user acceptance of new technologies has started to receive much attention from professionals as well as academic researchers. Developers and software industries are beginning to realize that lack of user acceptance of technology can lead to loss of money and resources.
In studying user acceptance and use of technology, the TAM is one of the most cited models. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) was developed by Davis to explain computer-use behavior. The theoretical basis of the model was Fishbein and Ajzen's Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA).

The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) is an information systems (System consisting of the network of all communication channels used within an organization) theory that models how users come to accept and use a technology, the model suggests that when users are presented with a new software package, a number of factors influence their decision about how and when they will use it, notably:

Perceived usefulness (PU) – This was defined by Fred Davis as "the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would enhance his or her job performance".

Perceived ease-of-use (PEOU) Davis defined this as "the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would be free from effort" (Davis, 1989).

The goal of TAM is "to provide an explanation of the determinants of computer acceptance that is general, capable of explaining user behavior across a broad range of end-user computing technologies and user populations, while at the same time being both parsimonious and theoretically justified ".

According to the TAM, if a user perceives a specific technology as useful, she / he will believe in a positive use-performance relationship. Since effort is a finite resource, a user is likely to accept an application when she / he perceives it as easier to use than another. As a consequence, educational technology with a high level of PU and PEOU is more likely to induce positive perceptions. The relation between PU and PEOU is that PU mediates the effect of PEOU on attitude and intended use. In other words, while PU has direct impacts on attitude and use, PEOU influences attitude and use indirectly through PU.

User acceptance is defined as "the demonstrable willingness within a user group to employ information technology for the tasks it is designed to support" (Dillon & Morris). Although this definition focuses on planned and intended uses of technology, studies report that individual perceptions of information technologies are likely to be influenced by the objective characteristics of technology, as well as interaction with other …

How to Become a Black Male Model

For many years, the world of modeling has been over saturated by beautiful and skinny female models. Male models have been given less limelight though most of them have been of Caucasian decent. The search and demand for black male models are on the increase with most designers have a preference of a darker skin to showcase their brands. If you have ever wanted to become a black male model, here is the chance for you.

To become a male black model, you need be black to start with. Beauty is not all necessary however. Most people perceive the world of modeling as a world of nudity and of anorexics. What you probably do not know is modeling is all about marketing. It is a mode of selling the jewelry, the clothing, fragrance and other accessories.

The demand of male models is increasing as more men become more conscious with keeping up with the latest trends and fashion. The man of today needs to looks good, smell good, and feel good. Men models are used to market and promote these products. The fashion world is looking for newer faces to market their brand and the advertisers too need different faces to appear on the covers of magazines and billboards.

So, how do you qualify to be on the catwalk? To become a black male model in high fashion, you need to have a masculine body-one that is irresistible to women. You have to have a height ranging from 5'11 "to 6'2". In addition, you have to look elegant and strong. For commercial models and ones in photo shoots, the height is not as much exaggerated. They may be shorter but have to maintain the same masculine features and a good looking face.

This career does not pay well, though with continuous publicity and earned celebrity and stardom, one's salary may increase rapidly.

Getting in the business is not easy, so is staying in it. It comes with a lot of challenges. One has to remain in shape by dieting and working out regularly and for very long hours. This is no career for the faint hearted, as it demands lots of stamina and self drive. Their looks too should be the best. To become a black male model, you have to have what it takes to beat this. There are model scouts all over looking for these males, so if you are one of them, make yourself seen.

Source Article

The Skill Levels of Model Car Kits

Just as everything we do in life has different levels of mastery, so it is the same for model car kits. There are a total of five skill levels. Although, two of them can somewhat fit into one snug skilled level. These levels are determined by the detail that is applied to the models that you are trying to create. Read on to find which skilled level you are at!

Defining the First Level

The first level is for beginners. Most beginners have to stay at this level for about a month or two, depending on how many models you create. With these models, they are already painted for you. So, there's no need to get yourself dirty. The basic idea of ​​these models is learning how things go together. Most of these, you just sort of snap the pieces into place. If you were anything like how I was when I began, you just thought one piece could fit anywhere. You knew the car had a front and a back, and four wheels. They use the method of peeling the decals and placing them on, rather than the ones where you have to use water. According to most websites, these kits are for young ones, or for those who haven't done models in a while.

Level Two Models

The second level is different in a few ways. This level is recommended for those over the age of ten. Most of them come as plain white pieces; so, on this level; you do begin to start painting. Here, they tell you how many parts are in the box, and this adds more detail. This is also the level where glue will be needed. There are also what are called waterslide decals, which are more life-like.

Level Three

Level three is about as hard as levels four and five. There are more versions of the model than just the ones that the company illustrates, so don't be alarmed if there are more parts in the box than what the instructions tell you about. Another thing they add to these kits is color schemes. You mix colors and so forth beginning in this level. Don't attempt this skill if you are not familiar with the basics, because let's face it, you're only wasting your money.

The Top Levels

Levels four and five are put together. This is the level that you begin tinkering with the engine and putting details on the inside as well. The higher the level you go, the more work you'll be putting into it. All of the levels have some sort of age limit. Yet, this is just what they think is appropriate to begin using the kit. It takes into account the fumes from the glue, paint etc., the skill involved in each level, and so on. What it all boils down to though is how comfortable you feel with what you are doing. Some people get it really easily, so they fly by skill levels one …

Rating of Wooden Model Ship Kit Manufacturers

There are about 20 wooden model ship kit manufacturers throughout the world. It can be challenging to determine who's kit will suit the model ship builder the best because of all the variables involved. The idea is to match up the kit manufacturer with the needs and wants of the builder so at the end of the day, the ship model builder has an enjoyable and fulfilling experience.

Cast Your Anchor has been in the model ship supply business for 7 years and been ship modelers for over 30 years. Over this time we have formed opinions on model ship kit manufacturers either through direct experience or from listening to our customers relate their experiences. We have summarized our findings below for 10 of the ship model manufacturers.

We provide the history and background of the manufacturer, location of their factory, the North American distributorship channel, their tendency when it comes to the kit skill level requirements and of course their rating.

The distributorship channel is most important when considering after sales service. Direct contact between the retailer and the manufacturer is usually best but not in all cases. The tendency for manufacturers to build kits aimed at a certain builder skill level is very important when it comes to the instructions that are provided in the kit. Entry level kit instructions generally assume that the model builder will require guidance with ship model building techniques in addition to specific instructions related to the vessel construction.

Definitions:

Rating 1 -10: 1-3 Poor, 3-7 Good, 8-10 Excellent. All categories are considered equally rated because there are alternative options the builder can exercise should there be an issue in any one of the categories.

Skill Level Tendency – Some manufacturers tend to lean towards a specific builder's skill level in their kits. Other manufacturers have a good variety of kits to suit all levels of skills. Skill Level Tendency: E – Entry Level, I – Intermediate Level, A – Ambitious Level.

Availability – Ranges from always in stock to fulfillment within a few weeks or months. Availability can be adversely affected by the distribution network of the manufacturer. If the manufacturer allows for direct buying the availability tends to be quite high.

Types of Vessels Available – The two areas looked at were era of the vessel and the vessel type. Some manufacturers have a limited range while others have offerings in almost all categories. One manufacturer has vessel types that are unique to what other manufacturers have to offer.

Historical Accuracy – The accuracy of a model ranges from barely recognizable to reasonably accurate. Detailed information of many vessels is not available which leaves for a fair bit of interpretation. When it comes to paint colors some manufacturers don't even try to recognize the true colors of the vessel.

Detailing – Some kits are highly detailed while others have minimum deck fittings. The accuracy of the detailing in terms of the era of the ship as well as the materials used …

Inspiration And Model, Celebrity Weddings

What could be more romantic than a wedding with sea views and mountains in the background? Let’s face it, you will not get an excessive amount of sleep the night before your wedding. Pour profiter de chaque immediate de votre mariage, l’agence Wedding World vous accompagne, vous conseille et vous rassure tout au long des préparatifs ainsi que le jour J. Please enter your most well-liked electronic mail tackle.

Album de mariage nmnom masculin: s’utilise avec les articles “le”, “l'” (devant une voyelle ou un h muet), “un”. Actress Priyanka Chopra , tennis champion Serena Williams , designer Misha Nonoo and stylist Jessica Mulroney are all names which have been instructed, nonetheless now that Markle has deleted her Instagram account it is harder to trace her friendships.

The Queen has granted permission for the ceremony to be held within the place of worship, which seats approximately 800, and core points of the wedding, together with the service, music, flowers, decorations and reception, will probably be paid for by the royal family.

Ce fil contenant les dernières actualités qui vous intéressent est l’endroit où vous passerez la majeure partie de votre temps. This secluded location is the right spot for you and your loved ones to expertise this most perfect day in a novel and peaceable environment.

Une équipe de choc pour un résultat des plus chic. Nous ne prenons aucune fee sur les prestations de professionnels recommandés. Même d’ici en Angleterre nous avions entendu parler de Wedding World. White wedding nnoun: Refers to particular person, place, thing, high quality, etc.…

Road Model À La Fashion Week Printemps

Pour télécharger plusieurs produits, activez un ou plusieurs filtres associé(s) à des choices de votre contrat (colonne de gauche). À la fin, le couple partage un smoking à queue-de-pie et finit de brouiller les pistes: l’un maquillé comme une drag-queen, sa moitié les cheveux courts façon garçonnet. Once you permit the World.brandName website, totally different terms of use and privateness coverage will apply.

Une choice qui se dessine dans quelques collections, en contrepoint d’une tendance plus générale, qui sera certainement trop graphique, colorée et brodée pour la majorité des messieurs. I went into time and tapped into the historical past of block printing as it stands in Jaipur and labored with the artisans at the museum to be taught the procedure of creating a block after which printing with the same.

De même, la vente annuel de mode nipponne, dont la 7e édition aura lieu en novembre prochain, est devenu un rendez-vous très attendu par les collectionneurs et créateurs les plus pointus. However one of the best half are the life lengthy associates I’ve found by means of it. No weblog journey or award can evaluate.

This lady is somewhat of a francophile, a lover of stripes, sweet treat enthusiast and a self-professed social media addict. Si les matières et les tons choisis sont plus naturels que précédemment, des pièces citadines (bombers et doudounes en Nylon, caban et perfectos) évitent au vestiaire d’être trop littéral.

In January and September, the occasion welcomes 50,000 guests via its doors on the Porte de Versailles Exhibition Centre in Paris, with round 600 French and worldwide ready-to-put on brands there for them to find. Donc, on doit se revoir, ne serait-ce que pour immortaliser le Second M.…