The Invisible Women of the Great Depression

During the Great Depression, women made up 25% of the work force, but their jobs were more unstable, temporary or seasonal then men, and the unemployment rate was much greater. There was also a decided bias and cultural view that "women did work" and in fact many who were employed full time often called themselves "homemakers." Neither men in the workforce, the unions, nor any branch of government were ready to accept the reality of working women, and this bias caused females intense hardship during the Great Depression.

The 1930's was particularly hard on single, divorced or widowed women, but it was harder still on women who weren't White. Women of color had to overcome both sexual and racial stereotyping. Black women in the North suffered an astounding 42.9% unemployment, while 23.2%. of White women were without work according to the 1937 census. In the South, both Black and White women were equally unemployed at 26%. In contrast, the unemployment rate for Black and White men in the North (38.9% / 18.1%) and South (18% / 16% respectively) were also lower than female counterparts.

The financial situation in Harlem was bleak even before the Great Depression. But afterward, the emerging Black working class in the North was decimated by wholesale layoffs of Black industrial workers. To be Black and a woman alone, made keeping a job or finding another one nearly impossible. The racial work hierarchy replaced Black women in waitressing or domestic work, with White women, now desperate for work, and willing to take steep wage cuts.

Survival Entrepreneurs
At the start of the Depression, while one study found that homeless women were most likely factory and service workers, domestics, garment workers, waitresses and beauticians; another suggested that the beauty industry was a major source of income for Black women. These women, later known as "survivalist entrepreneurs," became self-employed in response to a desperate need to find an independent means of livelihood. "

Replaced by White women in more traditional domestic work as cooks, maids, nurses, and laundresses, even skilled and educated Black women were so hopeless, '' that they actually offered their services at the so-called 'slave markets'-street corners where Negro women congregated to await White housewives who came daily to take their pick and bid wages down '' (Boyd, 2000 citing Drake and Cayton, 1945/1962: 246). Moreover, the home domestic service was very difficult, if not impossible, to coordinate with family responsibilities, as the domestic servant was usually on call '' around the clock '' and was subject to the '' arbitrary power of individual employers. ''


Inn Keepers and Hairdressers
Two occupations were sought out by Black women, in order to address both the need for income (or barter items) and their domestic responsibilities in northern cities during the Great Depression: (1) boarding house and lodging house keeping; and (2) hairdressing and beauty culture.

During the "Great Migration" of 1915-1930, thousands of Blacks from the South, mostly young, single men, streamed into Northern cities, looking for …

Hippie Headbands: A Hippie Fashion Trend

The 1960's gave rise to a hippie subculture which was originally a youth movement throughout the US. Not only did it spread to other countries, but it has had resurgence in recent years for young and old alike. Such shows as That 70s Show are no doubt partially responsible, but the fashion industry has taken note, and we are seeing hippie headbands , and fashion everywhere these days.

Both men and women in the hippie movement wore jeans and maintained long hair, wore sandals or went barefoot. Men frequently grew beards and women refused to wear makeup and bras. They wore brightly colored clothes in unusual styles which included bell bottom jeans, vests, tie dyed clothes, dashikis, peasant skirts and blouses, and those famous hippie headbands which they adopted from the Native Americans. Additionally they adopted styles from Asian, Indian, African and Latin American cultures.

Hippies were known for wearing handmade clothing because their beliefs included defying corporate culture. Because of this they not only learned to make clothes; they bought them from flea markets and second hand shops.

Many may not know that the hippie scene actually rose from the beatnik scene of the 1950s. The ideologies were originally the same as well as the values.

Hippie fashions and values ​​completely changed our culture, influencing music, television, literature and the arts as well as morals and religious beliefs. As you might imagine, tons of hippie clothes, ideals and other aspects of hippie culture have become part of our mainstream culture today. From church movements to cultural diversity, the concepts have been accepted more and more over the last several decades.

The hippie music festivals is only one of the many celebratory ways we embrace the effects of the hippie culture in modern times.

At these festivals hippie symbols and iconography are everywhere including the peace sign which can be seen on peace clothing, tie dye clothing, hippie jewelry, other forms of hippie fashion, and even the occasional peace sign tattoos.

Girls are known to wear gypsy skirts, which are peasant skirts, or broomstick skirts, often tie dyed and hippie dresses of similar fashion. Hippie tapestries are often draped or cut and sewn into dashikis or dresses as well.

In particular there were a myriad designs of hippie headbands . These bohemian headbands were often braided out of leather or fabric of most any type. The chic headbands of the 1980s were a throwback to them, but the 60s headbands were not typically elastic like those of the 1980s. The fashion trend included the use of bandanas or a simple cord tied around the head in various styles. These boho headband accessories did not have to match an outfit in particular, and therefore often had personal meaning or were worn as either a statement or to commemorate something in many instances.

The sight of the hippie headband was a sure sign in the 60s that a hippie was in your presence. This often brought derision from those who withstood the …

Using Coupon Codes Online Makes Sense

In today's tough economy everyone is looking to save money, shopping online is now so competitive, that hunting for bargains using online coupon codes can save you a fortune. These codes consist of numbers and letters that you can enter in a promotional code box most likely when you are checking out, some are entered when you have your purchases in your virtual shopping cart. Generally a coupon is good for a certain percent off a particular item, or free shipping on a particular item. Merchants that sell online provide coupon codes that can last from a day to a month; they constantly change, so if you are looking to buy something special, check on a regular basis. When checking out and paying it is important to check that your coupon has been deducted from your bill, if it has not, maybe it is out of date.

Merchants may also use codes to direct you to clearance inventory or to special sales of the day or week. If you use a retail store specifically, it is a good idea to sign up for email alerts for sales, you may get coupon codes sent that others that just look at a web site will not receive.

It really does not matter what you are looking to buy online, someone has a coupon for it from groceries to electronics, and if you are willing to search you will save something. It really is no different than driving from store to store when you are out; checking to see which store has the best deal, except this is cheaper to do. It really is about saving money, not only from the coupon code, but from your time to your gas money.

Finding coupon codes is not hard, the easiest way is to use your favorite search engine and search for either the item you want or do a general search of a store, and see what they have on offer. It is important to make your search as specific as you can, it will make finding your codes much easier. You have to spend some time looking, but it really is fun to spend time finding bargains in the comfort of your own home. There are also certain web sites that are dedicated to providing all the codes for you, they have done all the work, they are up to date and they can save you a lot of searching time. When on any of these sites, check out their message boards, people are always posting coupon codes that they think are a great saver.

Most codes come with terms of use, as with regular store coupons some may not be used with other codes, but you will find some that are stackable, allowing you to use more than one at a time. These are rarer, but when you can find them they will give a bigger saving. Coupons around the Holidays are certainly helpful, and many of them are sent directly from …

Gypsy Wanderlust Coachella Style

The Coachella Music Festival in California is now famous for its incredible talent lineup as well as stunning fashion influence. Festivals are liberating, known for the hippie eccentricities and it's not stuck to any one style. Anything goes, as long as you are daring enough!

Bold self-expression, free spirit, gypsy wanderlust, no boundaries, fashion that sings along with the soul. Coachella fashion has become a household name inspiring celebrities like Vanessa Hudgens and Katy Perry. I go every year, like many gals and guys, and plan my Coachella outfits ahead of time on Pinterest.

Obsessing over the flamboyant colorful gypsy style I am inspired by the boho style that is unique and effortlessly chic. My favorite looks for some Coachella style inspiration are the hi low dresses made from recycled saris, gorgeous printed fabric and soft silken to touch. Strapless with a ruched back they fit my curves perfectly. I have a full line up of the hi low skirts as well which I wear with tubetops, gladiator boots and chunky bracelets.

Coachella is the start of the summer concert season and the fun boho summer style. With stars like Jay Lo and Ariana Grande rocking their looks on stage to perfection, the festival is defined by its celebrity status, the outfits are hippie chic, bohemian whimsy, and ready for Instagram selfies.

Spring festival fashion goers experiment with just about everything, from glam dresses to just bikini halters and destroyed denim shorts. The main idea is you want to stand out as a fashinista in boho handmade clothing at Coachella. Breezy and free-spirited sheer kaftans, flowy maxi dresses in patchwork cotton, their energy is rampant and fun. The cotton fabric protects your skin from the afternoon sun and give you warmth when it's cool at night. Floral embellished maxi caftans styled with your comfy sandals as you spend long hours standing to see your favorite artists like Ariana Grande.

Anything goes from long gypsy skirts and loose funky hi waisted pants styled with halters and tanks to sheer kaftan dress or cover-ups with a jeweled bikini underneath. Kimono kaftans are cool with boots, styled like an Egyptian princess with lace and embroidery. Cotton tunics are comfortable paired with frayed denim shorts and are restroom-friendly as well.

And lastly the Coachella crown, handmake yours with lovely dried flowers and add in some statement jewelry, lightweight colorful malas in turquoise and amethyst, beautiful, handmade and swinging with you to the beats of country music.

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Group Coaching Model That Is Super Simple To Implement

A group coaching program can be really difficult to implement, or really easy to implement. Some of the common things I hear when I recommend a client start a group coaching are:

1) I don't have time to talk with dozens of clients each week

2) I don't have time to spend 5-10 hours a week writing lesson plans

3) I can't be available 24-7 on email

4) It just takes too much time.

5) It's a lot of work technically to do it.

And the thing is, those are all valid – because in so many of the older models, that's how it might have worked.

In fact, maybe as you read that list, you are thinking, yeah, that's me – I want to start a coaching program, but it just seems like too much work.

So let me ask you this:

What if I were to show you a way you could coach 100 – 1000 clients in just 2 hours a week, and they get almost the same results as working with you 1-1?

If that would be cool, if that would feel like, "yeah, I could do that," then read on!

Because I'm going to show you a super-simple coaching model that really works.

Before I get into it, I want to go over one concept: and that is the idea that group coaching does not get the same results as 1-1 coaching.

The thing is, the coaching itself isn't what gets results.

Your clients' ACTION and implementation gets them results.

The biggest reason that 1-1 coaching generally gets better results than group coaching is because with 1-1 coaching, the client feels obligated to finish his work before your next scheduled call.

How many times has your client told you, "yesterday I remembered I hadn't finished the assignment you gave me, and I thought about cancelling today's session, but decided to work a late night to complete the work instead," or something similar?

The thing is, if that client had been in group coaching, he probably wouldn't have done the work.

But is it really the group coaching or the clients' motivation that gets the work done?

Your client needs to step up and do the work on his own. You are a coach, not a babysitter. You are a coach, not a high school teacher. It is your clients responsibility to do the work. He needs to learn how to manage his time, and learn to focus. You can teach him those things, but he has to do it.

You are a coach, not a personal assistant, personal planner, or daytimer.

Now, here's the thing, if you are willing to limit yourself to helping only 20 clients at a time, when you have inside of you the ability to change possibly millions of lives (I mean, how many people NEED what you help with?) , then you shouldn't probably do group coaching.

But what if you knew there were 1000 people RIGHT NOW in your …

Egyptian Scarab Jewelry – Symbolism and History

The scarab beetle has been a symbolic motif in Egyptian jewelry for thousands of years. The scarab is a symbol of regeneration and rebirth, thus scarab jewelry was thought to bring protection, luck and vitality to the wearer. Egyptian soldiers were given scarabs before going into battle. Women were given scarabs for fertility. Scarab beads and designs were commonly fashioned into bracelets, pendants and rings.

Scarab jewelry was made from a wide range of stones and materials. Archeologists have found examples of scarab beads and artifacts made from clay, soapstone, green basalt, glass, bone, precious metals, wood, semi-precious gemstones and many other types of stone. The colors of scarabs were symbolic so plain stone was often glazed or enameled in bright colors. The most common colors found in enameled scarab jewelry were green (symbolizing new life), blue (for the sky and the River Nile), and red (for the sun). In addition to enamels, brightly colored semi-precious gemstones were used in scarab jewelry making including lapis lazuli, amethyst, carnelian, agate, jasper, onyx and turquoise. Today, scarab jewelry is still made from gemstones, enameled materials, and precious metals.

The symbolism in scarab jewelry derives primarily from its association with the Egyptian god of the rising sun, Khepri. One type of scarab, the "Sacred Scarab" or dung beetle, lays its eggs in a ball of dung which it rolls along the ground and finally into a hole where the eggs hatch and new beetles emerge from. This scarab was seen as the earthly representation of Khepri in that it was believed that this god rolled the sun across the sky each day, thus renewing life. The scarab is also associated with astrology and may have preceded the crab as the symbol we know as Cancer.

Scarabs were also used in ancient Egypt for protection in the afterlife. Large "heart scarabs" with hieroglyphic inscriptions on the underside, were placed across the chest of the deceased in the tomb. They were also found in place of the heart in mummified bodies. These heart scarabs were believed to protect the dead in the final judgment. The most famous of these was a chest or "pectoral" scarab found in Thebes in the tomb of King Tutankhamen. Today, heart scarabs are valued for ornamental purposes, and many still bear hieroglyphs and symbolic carvings on the underside.

Since Egyptian history and art are still studied today, the fascination with the scarab continues. Scarab jewelry and decor are still made in Egypt and by craftsmen around the world.

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Importance of a Spa to Improve Beauty

Spa massage treatments for the skin and body are important to keep the body going. Despite knowing how wonderful these spa massage therapies can be, we hardly put out a little bit of our time for them.

Before it is too late, we need to take some time out from these busy schedules of ours to pamper ourselves with a variety of spa massage treatments which can add new life and enhance our youth and beauty.

Spa massage treatments can do wonders in enhancing the beauty both from inside and outside. They help in rejuvenating our skin and body. It also relaxes our mind and soul in a soothing environment. These therapies also help in increasing the beauty and helps in maintaining our natural look, making us look gorgeous over a longer period of time.

These spa massage therapies use different kinds of oils, herbs and natural ingredients (like water, clay, minerals, stones) which play a remarkable role in enhancing our beauty as well as have a huge impact on our skin and body.

Some of the benefits of therapies on beauty are:
Smoother Complexion and Refined Pores: Due to the dust and pollution, dirt and bacteria tend to settle and accumulate on our skin, causing breakouts, black heads and white heads. During a facial Spa massage, the therapist carefully extracts the blackheads, white heads and accumulated dirt and oil out of the skin, which gives the skin a more refined and smoother texture.

Renewed Skin: A portion of the facial spa consists of exfoliating our skin's outermost layers. This helps in shedding away dead skin cells, removing bacteria, dirt out of our skin and unclogging the pores away.

A Fresher You: Due to exfoliation and extraction, our face will bring out new, fresh layer of skin to the surface, paving a path for any beauty creams, serums, moisturizers and anti aging creams to easily absorb into our skin, allowing maximum hydration to the skin. Hence, boosting the collagen production, increasing the plumpness of skin. As a bonus, appearance of wrinkles and fine lines is reduced with even toned skin.

No matter your age or gender, your body's largest organ is your skin. If you want your skin to look the best and to stay healthy, you must take care of it. Healthy looking skin begins with skin care.

Spa massage therapy is an essential ingredient of your overall skin care.

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Collect Shopping Carts Safely and Efficiently – How to Keep Your Parking Lot Clean

Scattered shopping carts create quite the inconvenience for not only store owners but for customers as well. When carts are not put away in the proper location they are not available for customer use and are often scattered in the parking lot requiring store personnel to run around and collect them. Lost carts found throughout the city are a public nuisance that ordinances are being put into effect requiring stores to manage their shopping carts or they will be fined. Each collection solution has advantages and disadvantages which are detailed further below.

There are a number of effective ways stores can retrieve their carts. Stores can use equipment called a cart pusher, puller, retriever, or cart manager. Stores can also hire additional personnel to physically retrieve the shopping carts scattered throughout the parking lot. Award systems are also used to provide customers with incentives to bring them back to the appropriate destination once they are done using them. Corrals and search teams can also be used to help control wandering carts. Lastly, a pull rope can help employees retrieve shopping carts more efficiently than collecting them individually or just a few at a time.

A motorized cart pusher, also known as a puller, retriever, or cart manager makes retrieving shopping carts safe, fast and easy! Here is how one type of retriever available works: first you place the cart's back wheels effortlessly into the cart-cradle nesting cups. Some systems require bolting the cart onto the pusher but the nesting cup option protects the grocery-cart from damage that can occur when bolted on as well as gives you availability to use all of your fleet at any time. Next, the rest of the fleet is collected and nested onto the first one that is sitting in the cart-cradle nesting cups. A safety strap is placed over the entire row and attached to the first which is in the nesting cups so they all can be pushed safely to their destination. Some of these pushers utilize a remote control to push the row in the designated direction. Many motorized retrievers are built with a strobe light and brake light to provide greater visibility to those surrounding cars and pedestrians. These retrievers can retrieve a high volume of carts and only one person is needed to operate one. Motorized pushers can retrieve 3 to 4 times more shopping carts than a single person can, thus reducing the store's labor costs. Retrievers also reduce liabilities from injury as employees can effortlessly retrieve the carts with the use of this type of equipment. No straining comes from pushing or pulling an entire row. The upfront cost to purchase a machine is quickly recouped from the reduced labor and liability costs.

Another method to collect shopping carts is to hire additional personnel to go around the parking lot to retrieve the shopping carts by hand and bring them back to the appropriate location so that they may be available for customer use. This method does however, …

We're Separated And My Spouse Has Stopped Wearing His Wedding Ring. Mine Still Means Something To Me

One of the things that people who don't want to separate with their spouse are trying to avoid are questions that they don't know how to answer. They will often dread people asking them about the state of their marriage or whether or not they are going to get a divorce. They don't know the answers to these questions and they don't really want to think about them too deeply, or even to talk about them.

One symbol that puts these feelings and conflicts into sharp focus is that of wedding rings. Many people believe that you should still wear them. I am one of these people. My opinion on this is that when you are separated, you are still married. And married people wear wedding rings. I believe that there's a reason that the couple are separated and not divorced and should therefore act accordingly.

Not everyone agrees with me though. Some people remove their ring as soon as they declare themselves separated or have moved out. They feel that wearing it isn't being authentic and they don't want to pretend that things are fine when they are not.

This can lead to conflict when the spouses feel very differently on this topic. Someone might explain: "I have no intentions of taking off my wedding ring but my husband has already removed his and it breaks my heart. I worry that this means that he is going to be looking for other women during our separation or that he does not consider himself truly married anymore. I have mentioned these things to him, but he says that I am over reacting. He says that he just doesn't feel like wearing his. I don't understand this. I could never take mine off .I sometimes find him staring at mine, as if he wishes he could ask me to take it off. I don't want to remove it because of what it represents to me. I am still hopeful that we will one day reconcile. And I don't want to invite people to ask me questions about why I am not wearing it. I have no idea how I would answer those questions anyway. Plus, it is no one's business. Is there any rule about whether or not you should wear your ring when separated? "

I don't know of any rules. Most couples just decide on this based on how they feel at the time. I understand why you are upset. You feel that your husband not wanting to wear his ring is very telling in terms of his intentions. You could be right about this, but I would not panic. People's feelings can change over the course of a separation. And, not every one wears their ring all of the time.

To be honest, there are times when I do not wear my ring even though my husband and I have been reconciled for a while. It has nothing to do with my feelings about my marriage. I do …

Why Clothing Donation Benefits Everyone

Most of us are guilty of over-consumerism today. One of the things that most of us have is having more clothes than we actually needed. If I would look into my closet, I can collect together quite a pile of items that I haven't looked at or used in over six months or even a year. Somehow, it's very hard to get the time to collect these clothing items together, bag them up and get rid of them. Plus, many of the clothing are in excellent, almost new condition.

It is such a shame to dump it into the trash, when it could be going to good use. That's where our local charities and used clothing stores come to the rescue. These establishments always welcome clothing donations and often offer discount coupons should you choose to shop for other needed items at a later date. Also, you don't have to limit your drop-offs to clothing only. You can also send shoes, household items, books and even furniture items, as long as they are in good condition and not requiring any major repairs.

Having a place to send our clothing donations has been half the battle for our family. From time to time we've found a needy family who can benefit from our unneeded items, however, it's can be a touchy topic to bring up, and some people have hang-ups about wearing used clothing or they feel like their a charity case , if you try to give them something. Having a retail establishment that welcomes clothing donations solves all those problems for us and eliminates the guesswork.

In addition, many of these used clothing stores now offer free pick-up of your used clothing donations. In our area, we will get a call about once a month notifying us that a truck will be on our street on a particular date, and asking if we will be putting anything out for pick-up. This service is wonderful. All you need to do is bag up your clothing donation along with any other items you would like to have carted away, and the truck will stop by and pick up your donation. Often times, the proceeds from the sales of donations, will go in part to a local charity. This is an added incentive for people to clear out their unused, unneeded items for a good cause!

It is such a waste to throw clothes away or to just leave it hanging in one's closet, and not worn. Donating used clothing is a gesture of generosity; it helps less-fortunate individuals in our communities. It helps to clear out space, making room for items we actually need and use, and eliminating clutter.

In short, clothing donations can benefit everyone. It is definitely something meaningful and our family will continue doing.

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